Hot DIP Galvanized/Electrogalvanized Chain with Diameter D2mm-D68mm G30-G100 Galvanized Chain
1. Prompt reply for inquiry within 24 hours
2. One on one service guarantees you the best purchasing experience.
3. Strong production capacity and professional technical engineer can guarantee the delivery time and quality.
4. Strict quality control.
ZheJiang CZPT chain is a professional manufuacturer which is specialized in producing lifting chain, mining chain,lashing chain,anchor chain, ash handler chain,fishing chain etc..since 1991.
We have certified by ISO 2000 ,and get CE certification, safety certificate of mining products,classification society certification.
Our chains can be exported to overseas markets,such as United States,Japan,Germany,Russia,,Eastern Europe and Southeast Asianountries.
Haiwei chains has 4 producing lines with more than 220 employees.
Our chain’s diameters ranges from 6mm-42mm and grade standard ranges form G30 to CZPT serious which can meet the requirementsof mining, lifting,berthing,strapping,lifting, fishery and other fields.
|Usage:||Transmission Chain, Drag Chain, Conveyor Chain, Dedicated Special Chain|
|Surface Treatment:||Baking Paint|
Different types of drive chains
Drive chains are an important part of many different types of machinery. In this article, we’ll cover a variety of different types, from square links to engineered steel. From there, we’ll discuss different types of chains, such as double and leaf chains. Let’s take a closer look at each one. Once you know what kind of chain you’re looking for, you can make a buying decision. If you’re not sure where to start, read on to learn more about these types of chains, what to look for when choosing, and how to choose the right chain for your specific application.
Engineering Steel Chain
Engineering steel chains are widely used in conveyors, bucket elevators, tensioning links, transmission chains, etc., and have the characteristics of high strength, low friction, and good shock resistance. Early models of these chains were developed for difficult-to-convey applications. They were originally made of all-steel components with flanged rollers made of cast iron. They then increase in size, strength, and spacing in response to the heavy-duty requirements of the industry.
Today, these chains are used in a wide variety of applications, including tough oil drilling operations and forklifts. They offer excellent durability and high power transfer and are available in a variety of materials. They are also ideal for harsh environments such as harsh oil drilling. Their high-strength steel construction means they can handle harsh operating conditions. Their durability is an essential feature of any chain, and CZPT Chains offers a full line of engineered steel chains to meet your exact specifications.
A drive chain made of engineered steel consists of several components: links, pin joints, and sprockets. This allows them to carry heavy loads with minimal stretch. Due to its internal mechanical advantage, the chain runs around the sprockets with almost 100% efficiency. Also, the chain is made of special steel that can withstand certain conditions. They are available in different alloys and grades. If you have any questions, please feel free to contact us.
Roller chain wear is a major problem for conveyor and drive chains. In these cases, the rollers of the chain are more prone to wear than the bushings, so lubrication is essential. Many chains are designed to work with little or no lubrication. Finally, material selection is an important factor in the design of engineered steel conveyor chains. These factors will help ensure that the chain stays in good shape.
Conveyor Chains with Square Links
There are two basic types of conveyor chains. The first is the square chain, commonly used in cranes and hoists. It’s cheap to manufacture but more prone to overload. The second is a chain that uses hook joints or detachable links. These are used for short-term power transmission and have a lubricating effect. Usually, they are made of malleable iron but can be more expensive.
Another type of chain is the removable steel chain. For moderate loads, this is an easy-to-install option. The closed end of the tab should face the sprocket. It is very important to maintain the alignment of the chain relative to the sprockets. The chain should be adjusted to suit the load before installation. It is important to keep the chain lubricated to prolong its life.
Steel chains offer a wider selection of materials and heat treatments. This chain is also more accurate than its counterpart. Steel bushing chains are less expensive but require more frequent lubrication. Steel roller chains are often used for long conveyor centers or high loads. However, lower friction requirements require lower strength chains. This means that chains with square links are a better choice for smaller conveyors. But this style has its drawbacks.
Bushing chains are made of steel and are an excellent alternative for small-scale applications. The pins are silent and prevent tooth damage. Bushed roller chains are also used to a certain extent as conveyor chains. However, the main advantage of the bushing roller chain is that it does not make any noise at all. Bushed roller chains are made of alloy steel and are suitable for very low-speed applications.
Double-strand roller chain, also known as a double-strand, consists of two rows of single-strand links. It has high impact strength, low weight, and a small form factor. Duplex roller chains are manufactured using CZPT technology, which uses solid rollers to improve sprocket tooth rotation and reduce shock loads. During the manufacturing process, the metal is heat-treated to increase strength and reduce corrosion.
A single chain is designed for a single sprocket, while a double chain consists of two identical chains connected side by side. Double chains are more durable than simple chains because double rollers contain roller bearings, pins, and other components. Simplex drive chains can handle high loads, while duplex drive chains are designed for medium-duty applications.
Blade chains are used in reciprocating devices such as forklifts. They are also used in machine tools for counterweight chains. Leaf chains come in a variety of lengths, usually with female or male ends. Leaf chains can be manufactured in even or odd pitches and are ideal for lifting and balancing. This article will introduce some key uses of leaf chains in drive chains. Additionally, we’ll discuss how they are made and how they behave in applications.
Most drive chains today are made from leaf chains. These chains are designed to increase the strength of the chain. However, they are less expensive than other types of chains. You can also purchase specialized leaf chains for certain applications. CZPT Chain also offers custom leaf chains for your unique needs. Leaf chains are commonly used in forklifts, material handling, and lifting applications. They are usually made from high-quality components. The BL1688 Leaf Chain has 8 x 8 laces and is sold in 10-foot boxes or 25- to 100-foot reels. The leaf chain can be cut as needed.
When selecting a leaf chain for a specific application, consider the minimum tensile strength of the chain. The minimum breaking strength must be high enough to protect the worker or machine, but must also be legal for the type of machine. Most manufacturers publish this minimum strength requirement. To make the most durable leaf chain, design engineers must consider the ISO4347 standard when choosing the right leaf chain. Leaf chain manufacturers tend to exceed international standards by about 20%.
Roller chains are made from a variety of materials. Some common materials include steel and stainless steel. The most suitable material depends on cost, environmental conditions, and horsepower transmission design. Chain manufacturers can optimize the material for the intended use. Depending on its size, spacing, and special construction techniques, it can be made lighter or heavier. This is an advantage for applications in noise-sensitive environments. Below are some examples of common uses for roller chains.
The wear of the components in a roller chain is an unavoidable part of its operation. The amount of elongation depends on factors such as lubrication, load, and the frequency of articulation between the pin and bushing. Manufacturing critical wear parts require careful attention to detail. Proper raw materials, manufacturing, and assembly are critical to product performance and longevity. If these components aren’t of high quality, they won’t last as long as the chain should.
The industry recommends measuring the wear elongation of the roller chain to determine when it needs to be replaced. Proper safety procedures must be used to measure chain tension. The tight span of the chain shall be measured by applying the measuring load specified by ANSI. A correctly measured roller chain is safe to use. For motorcycles, the chain is bigger and stronger. Often, toothed belts are replaced by shaft drives because they are less noisy and require less maintenance.
Tensile strength is the most commonly used measurement method for roller chains. This measurement represents the amount of load the chain can withstand before it breaks. Fatigue strength is another measure of durability. Fatigue strength measures how long a roller chain can withstand long-term use before failing. These two measurements are closely related and maybe the same or different. In addition to tensile strength, fatigue strength is a useful factor to consider when purchasing a chain.
editor by CX 2023-06-12
Applicable Industries: Resorts, Garment Retailers, Building Materials Retailers, Equipment Restore Shops, Producing Plant, Meals & Beverage Manufacturing facility, Farms, Restaurant, House Use, Retail, Meals Shop, Printing Stores, Development works , Energy & Mining, Foodstuff & Beverage Shops, Other, Advertising Business
Showroom Location: None
Substance: Stainless Steel
Substance Characteristic: Heat Resistant
Structure: Belt conveyor
Voltage: one hundred ten/220/380V
Guarantee: 1 Yr
Width or Diameter: 300mm or customized
Machinery Examination Report: Not Accessible
Video outgoing-inspection: Supplied
Marketing Type: New Solution 2571
Warranty of core components: 1 Yr
Main Factors: Bearing, Gear, Gearbox
Excess weight (KG): 100 kg
Product title: belt conveyor machine
Key word: Low Cost Screw Conveyor
Utilization: workshops continuous conveying
Body Materials: Carbon Steel Stainless Metal
Advantage: High Effectiveness Reduced Value
Velocity: Adjsutable Velocity
width: 500mm-1200mm Personalized
size: Tailored 1~30m
Packaging Particulars: Picket case packing
Port: HangZhou Port
Our Positive aspects one.OEM provider2.Supply on timethree.Multiple creation lines4.Our Belt Conveyor with this kind of advantages : long conveying distance extensive software scopesimple structure powerful adaptability to supplies high trustworthiness minimal vitality consumption substantial performance lower maintenance price. Specification
|Conveyor Duration||1-one hundred meters|
|Lifting Height||As for every design|
What to look for in a roller chain
There are many different factors to consider when purchasing a roller chain. One of the most important factors is tensile strength, which represents the force required to break the chain. Roller chains are available in three different tensile strengths: minimum, average and ultimate. Each strength reflects a different limit to the load the chain can handle. However, these limits are not always equal and you should be aware of the differences between roller chains.
Most roller chains have standard sizes printed on the side panels. This is usually “40” or “C2080H”, but can also be the letter “B”. If the chain is old, it will need to be cleaned to see its size. You can find the size on the standard roller chain size chart, but not everyone is marked. To determine the size, measure the diameter and pitch of the chain, then compare the results to the chart to see what size you need.
Heavy-duty roller chains are available with heat-treated pins, side plates, and rollers. In addition to being heat treated, they are also factory pre-stretched, which reduces wear on these parts. If properly maintained, they can last for years, reducing the risk of failure or corrosion. Depending on the application, standard roller chains are available in different sizes. It can be purchased separately. There are several options to choose from, depending on the size and strength of the application.
PEER roller chains contain solid rollers to reduce shock loads on the sprocket teeth. Heat treating and preloading all components of the PEER chain helps minimize initial elongation. Hot-dip lubrication ensures complete lubrication of all chain components, extending their life and reducing maintenance costs. For heavy-duty applications, ASME/ANSI-B29.1 chain is a good choice.
Standard roller chains are made of steel or alloy steel. However, it can be made of other materials such as stainless steel. In addition to steel, stainless steel is often used in food processing machinery where chain lubrication is an issue. Brass and nylon are also sometimes used. However, they are not that popular. Therefore, you should always check with your supplier before purchasing. By comparing the tensile strength of two different chains and making an informed decision, you can get the best price and service.
Chain without bushing
Bushless roller chains have advantages over conventional roller chains. Unlike conventional chains, bushless chains have extensive lateral flexibility, which increases the chain’s lubrication flow. The inner plates of bushless chains have protruding shoulders so the oil can flow through them more easily and efficiently. This is an important characteristic of a smooth-running chain. Additionally, bushless chains may have improved shifting performance.
The strength of a bushingless roller chain is measured in terms of tensile strength and fatigue strength. The former measures the load a chain can withstand before breaking. Fatigue strength is equally important, and factors that affect fatigue strength include the steel used to make the chain components, the pitch hole fabrication, the type of shot peening on the chain, and the design and thickness of the chain. For example, if the chain is too thin, it may not be enough for heavy-duty applications.
Like traditional roller chains, bushingless roller chains have two different types of links. The inner link has two inner plates connected by pins, while the outer chain has two outer plates held together by bushings. A bushingless roller chain is similar to a traditional chain, except it eliminates a step in the assembly process by stamping the tube into the inner plate. So if you want a smoother ride, a bushingless roller chain is a better choice.
There are two different sizes of bushingless roller chains. One size is designed for use with standard single-strand chains, while the other size is designed for use with double-strand or triple-strand chains. Bushless chains are generally shorter than conventional chains, so they can fit in tighter spaces. Bushless chains are made of the highest quality materials. These chain attachments are case hardened for optimum strength and durability.
The silent roller chain has a smooth, low-noise drive. They are made of stacked rows of flat chainplates with a gear-like profile that meshes with the sprocket teeth. Each chainplate is attached to a corresponding sprocket, which also allows the chain to bend. While these basic components are the same for every silent roller chain, there are many variations that allow them to be used in a variety of applications.
The most popular high-speed transmission, silent chains feature gear-like sprockets. They can be made from single or multiple strands of material. Single-strand chains are less expensive than multi-strand chains, but they tend to wear out faster if not lubricated. Single-strand roller chains can be used for years without lubrication, but for your application, wide silent chains are still worth considering.
The design and construction of silent chains make them ideal for conveying a wide variety of products. They have flat, heat-resistant surfaces. They are also durable and non-slip. They are available in a variety of pitch sizes, widths, and mounting styles. Whether you need chains for general purpose conveyors or glass bottle transport applications, we have you covered. Ask about the benefits of silent roller chain conveyors.
Inverted tooth chains are another option for quieter chains. These chains are designed to reduce noise from engine-related friction. Silent chains are more common, and manufacturers have fallen in love with them. A silent chain consists of several links connected to the sprocket teeth. Teeth rotate to reduce noise, vibration, and chord action. These are the main reasons why silent chains are so popular.
ANSI chain pitch
To measure your bike’s chain pitch, you can use a caliper. This measurement is taken from the center of the rolling pin to the center of the next rolling pin. Chains come in many sizes, but ANSI is the most common chain standard in the United States. A caliper is handy if you’re not sure which size to buy, as it allows you to check for worn sprockets.
Chains that meet ANSI standards will be characterized by a certain pitch. This measurement is based on the width and spacing of the roll. The spacing is usually greater than the width. The standard number will be the right number for the width of the chain or the left number for the rollers. The number on the left indicates whether the chain is lightweight or heavyweight. Heavyweight chains are designated by the suffix “H”.
Common chain sizes are based on ANSI chain pitch. Pitch is the minimum distance between bushing and sprocket. The smaller the chain pitch, the greater the total distance between the two points. This means the chain will last longer. However, if you are buying a chain for a specific application, you should check the pitch carefully as it can affect the performance of the chain.
Roller chain wear measurement
The purpose of roller chain wear measurement is to prevent breakage by monitoring the strain on the chain. There are several ways to measure roller chain wear. The first is to remove the chain from its working position and measure the distance from the sprocket to its measuring end. Another way is to measure the pitch of the chain or the distance between two pins. This method is superior to other methods because it is convenient and accurate.
When measuring the wear of a roller chain, it is important to note that the elements of the chain will gradually deform. About 3.75% of the total wear will be on the pins and the rest will be on the internal links. These wear measurements will vary based on the nominal pitch of the chain and the amount of friction the chain is experiencing. Proper lubrication between pins and bushings, load and frequency of articulation all affect wear rates.
It is important to measure the amount of wear on the roller chain to avoid excessive machine failures. The longer the chain runs, the more wear it will wear. Although the length of the chain should be less than the center distance, the excessive load will cause premature wear. Therefore, lubrication is essential. Additionally, the sag of the chain should not exceed 2% to 4% of its center-to-center distance. Finally, check for unusual noise or visible defects. A common cause of excessive roller chain wear is the size of the load. Every chain manufacturer sets a maximum workload for its product.
There are several ways to measure roller chain wear. If using a high-speed drive, it should have at least 11 teeth, and a medium-speed drive should have at least 25 teeth. Also, be sure to check the length of the chain, even if you should. The same goes for the pin diameter, which should be the same or different pitch as the roller chain.
editor by czh
We – EPG Team the bigge EPT gearbox & motors , vee pulleys, timing pulleys, couplings and gears manufacturing unit in China with 5 different branches. For far more specifics: Cellular/whatsapp/telegram/Kakao us at: 0086~13083988828 13858117778 0571 88828
High good quality Stainless Metal camlock coupling
Product detail :
Male Adapter x Male
Stainless Steel camlock hose fittings(Engates Rapidos, Manager coupling) technical specs:
Common of our SS cam and groove coupling:
>Our camlock coupling are made to regular of A – A-59326(earlier named MIL-C-27487)or DIN 2828.DIN2817
Casting approach of our SS camlock coupling:
Body materials of our SS kamlock fitting:
>CF8M casting (SS316)
>CFM casting (SS304)
> EPT material are accessible on ask for
Specification of our SS camlock coupling:
>Sizes offered:from 1/2″ to 6″
1/2″ 3/4″ 1″ 1-1/4″ 1-1/2″ 2″ 2-1/2″ 3″ 4″ 5″ 6″ 8″
Cam levers of our SS camlock fitting:
Pins.Rings and Protection clips of our SS kamlock:
>We use steel plated Pins,Rings and Protection clips.
(Notice:Basic safety clips are only available when required by the client,the customer have to shell out further if require safely and securely clips)
Sealings of our acoples rapidos kamlock en acero inxidable:
>PTFE envelop gasket
EPT materia EPT are offered on ask for.
Threads of our racores camlock en acero inxidable:
>BSP(We generally make the woman thread parallel BSPP.male thread tapered BSPT)
Packing & Delivery
Carton and wood case
EPT RUBBER, as a professional producer and exporter with knowledge of ten a long time, gives a wide assortment of EPT Hose, numerous PVC Hoses, Air Hose, Gasoline Hose, Suction & Discharge Hose, Sand Blasting Hose, Fittings and relative products to suit different sorts of applications.
Made in compliance with global high quality standards (SAE, DIN, ISO), our variety of items is an result of persistent endeavors to achieve maximum shopper satisfaction.
Our hydraulic hose manufacturing traces consist of Large- EPT EPT and EPT bunching machines, braiding equipment, and LIQUID NITROG EPT COOLING Technique, which promotes our capacity to a hundred and fifty 000 meters for every month and good quality considerably ahead of competition. A thorough laboratory offers inspection covering all production approach from raw material, semifinished, to finished products and lasting to high quality tracibility technique soon after sale.
Right now, we have a distinguished client li EPT in the building, mining & earthmoving industries. With rigorous high quality control system and once-a-year manufacturing capability of 4 million meters, our items are also achieving overseas shores by means of markets in the Europe, North America, Ea EPT Asia and EPT places.
We imagine our accomplishment is tied directly to the worthwhile growth and satisfaction of our clients. So if fascinated, do not wait to get in touch with us.
We have total sequence of SAE and EPT normal, such as:
Wire braided: SAE R1/DIN EPT 1SN, SAE R2/DIN EPT 2SN, SAE R16, SAE R17
Wire spiral: SAE R9, R12, R13, DIN EPT 4SP, DIN EPT 4SH
Textile braided: SAE R3, SAE R6, SAE 5
Teflon: SAE R7, SAE R8
Air hose–WP twenty bar/three hundred PSI, BP sixty bar/ 900 PSI. 50-100M for each roll.
Water hose–WP twenty bar/300 PSI, BP 60 bar/ 900 PSI. fifty-100M for every roll.
Suction hose–Drinking water suction hose, h2o discharge hose, oil suction hose, oil discharge hose.
Sand bla EPT hose–Substantial abrasion resistant tube.
Welding hose–Oxygen hose, Acetylene hose, Propane hose, Twin hose
PVC Metal Bolstered Hose–for drinking water suction and conveying.
PVC Fiber Bolstered Hose–For food grade liquid.
PVC Helix Suction Hose–plastic spiral bolstered.
PVC Garden Hose–for house and agriculture usage.
PVC Layflat Hose–agriculture irrigation and industry watering.
If any need to have or concerns, p EPT do not wait to make contact with me.
It truly is a lot more than happy to be on your services.
FAQ ( Regularly Requested Concern)
1. Is sample accessible? Shall I pay for sample or shipping?
Free of charge samples and free of charge supply.
two. How extended will I get my get?
EPT creation time for 1×20 toes container is 10-15 days, for 1×40 toes container twenty-twenty five days.
three. How will my buy be packed?
All hose is packed by 2 plies of PVC film, interior is tranparent, outer is colour and thick one. (Coloration can be ordered as customer like). Particular packing like Reel and Pallet also offered. Fitting is packed by 3 plies, carton, PVC bag and then pallet.
four. What need to I do if I locate quality dilemma in employing?
twelve months Quality Garentee for all of our items. We offer substitute for any defective triggered by non-human factors.
5. Is it achievable to pay a visit to your factory?
We warmly welcome you to pay a visit to our manufacturing facility at any of your hassle-free time.
HangZhou EPT RUBBER CO.,LTD
Address: Area 718, No. 658 HangZhou Street, E&T dvp zone, HangZhou, China
Tel: 0086~571-8822571/8822 0571 -8098 5516
Fax: 0086-571-88220971: 0086~571-8822571/8822 0571 -8098 5517
If you have any interests on our product, make sure you make contact with us.
We – EPG Group the bigge EPT gearbox & motors , vee pulleys, timing pulleys, couplings and gears manufacturing unit in China with 5 different branches. For much more details: Mobile/whatsapp/telegram/Kakao us at: 0086~13083988828 13858117778 0571 88828 The use of authentic tools manufacturer’s (OEM) component quantities or trademarks , e.g. CASE® and John Deere® are for reference purposes only and for indicating merchandise use and compatibility. Our company and the outlined substitute components contained herein are not sponsored, approved, or created by the OEM.
We – EPG Team the bigge EPT gearbox & motors , vee pulleys, timing pulleys, couplings and gears manufacturing unit in China with 5 different branches. For a lot more particulars: Mobile/whatsapp/telegram/Kakao us at: 0086~13083988828 13858117778 0571 88828
Pipe coupling, EPT pipe coupling, Lengthy sleeve coupling
End ring: GGG40 or ASTM A536 65-45-twelve
Gasket: EPDM or NBR
Bolts/nuts: Carbon metal grade 8.8 with Dacroment coating or Hot Galvanized
Surface area: EPOXY coating RAL5015, RAL5017 or according to customer’s request
We – EPG Team the bigge EPT gearbox & motors , vee pulleys, timing pulleys, couplings and gears factory in China with 5 diverse branches. For far more information: Cell/whatsapp/telegram/Kakao us at: 0086~13083988828 13858117778 0571 88828 The use of original tools manufacturer’s (OEM) element figures or emblems , e.g. CASE® and John Deere® are for reference reasons only and for indicating merchandise use and compatibility. Our business and the detailed substitute elements contained herein are not sponsored, accepted, or created by the OEM.
We – EPG Group the bigge EPT Chain and agricultural gearbox manufacturing unit in China with 5 different branches. For a lot more particulars: Cell/whatsapp/telegram/Kakao us at: 0086~13083988828 13858117778 0571 88828
We can provide numerous specification for couplings&comma HRC coupling&comma NM MHcoupling&comma versatile coupling&comma Jaw coupling&comma FCL coupling&comma ROTEX Coupling&comma bowex coupling etc&period
Our Chain coupling measurement from 3012&semi 4012&semi 4014&semi 4016&semi 5014&semi 5016&semi 5018&semi 6018&semi 6571&semi 6571&semi 8018&semi 8571&semi 8571&semi 1571&semi 12018&semi 12571&period
The chain coupling composed of two-stand roller chains and two sprockets&comma characteristics easy and compact composition&comma and higher versatility power transmission capability and sturdiness&period What is far more&comma the chain coupling enables straightforward link&soldisconnection&comma and the use of the housing enhances safety and durability&interval
Chain coupling belongs to inelastic flexible coupling aspect&period Utilizing double roller chain simultaneously engaged with two identical sprockets&comma in order to attain the two coupling halves linked&time period
The principal distinction in between different chain coupling is a diverse chain&comma typical are duplex roller chain coupling&comma simplex roller chain couplings&comma silent chain couplings&comma nylon chain couplings&interval
Chain coupling can be utilized in the textile&comma agricultural&comma substance managing&comma engineering&comma mining&comma light industry&comma chemical mechanical shaft travel method&time period
Chain coupling is ready to function beneath substantial temperature&comma humidity and dusty surroundings&comma but not implement to the celebration of high-pace&comma significant shock load and transferring axial forces&time period
Chain couplings must work beneath the circumstances of good lubricating and protecting go over&interval
1&rpar Chain coupling has a simple composition &lparcomposed of four components&rpar&interval
two&rpar Straightforward assembly and disassembly&comma disassembly without having relocating the
3&rpar Coupled two-axis&comma
four&rpar Compact size&comma and light-weight excess weight&time period
five&rpar No substantial precision demands for set up&interval
6&rpar Reliable procedure&interval
7&rpar Minimal coastline&period
8&rpar Lengthy provider daily life
Numerous factors triggering failure&colon 1&rpar Overload&semi 2&rpar The chain or sprocket prolonged use of abnormal wear and tear&semi 3&rpar The go over is not put in&comma so that the chain is simple to be corroded and broken&period
The use of authentic tools manufacturer’s (OEM) part quantities or emblems , e.g. CASE® and John Deere® are for reference needs only and for indicating merchandise use and compatibility. Our organization and the detailed alternative components contained herein are not sponsored, approved, or produced by the OEM.